Issue 3 Weather Summer 2001

A Timeline of Antarctic Exploration

Frances Richard

­

A Chronology of Antarctic Exploration to Accompany The Worst Journey In the World *

­

Jan. 1773 James Cook crosses into the Antarctic Circle at 67° 15’ S., the first explorer to do so.

1819-1840 Various expeditions under Bellingshausen, Weddell, Biscoe, Balleny, and Wilkes map portions of the Antarctic coastline, determining that rock is present beneath the ice, and that the landmass is large enough to be classified as a continent.

1840 James Clark Ross pushes his ships, the Erebus and the Terror (after which two Antarctic volcanic peaks are named) through the pack-ice to 78° 11’ S.

1893 The Challenger Expedition spends 3 weeks within the Antarctic Circle, collecting marine specimens and disproving current theories that the cold, dark Antarctic seas cannot support life.

1895 Henryk Johan Bull makes the first known landing on the Antarctic mainland.

1897 The Borchgrevink party spends the first human winter in Antarctica.

1901 Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery Expedition lands at McMurdo Sound.

1902 On Dec. 30, at the furthest southern extreme of their journey, Scott's party travels to 82° 17’ or 520 miles from the actual pole.

1907 Ernest Shackleton, a member of Scott's team, returns to Antarctica with his own Endurance Expedition. One party under Shackleton reaches the magnetic pole (the extreme of magnetic south); a second party heads for the geographic pole (the meeting point of lines of longitude). Food shortages force this group to turn back 97 miles from the pole, close enough to prove that it lies on land rather than beneath a frozen sea.

1909 23-year old Apsley Cherry-Garrard travels in Australia; hears of Scott's 2nd Expedition aboard the Terra Nova and asks to be allowed to join. The expedition's zoologist, Dr. E.A. Wilson, a family friend of the Cherry-Garrards, persuades Scott to accept him as the team's youngest member.

April 1910 Robert E. Peary and Matthew Henson arrive at the North Pole with the help of Eskimo guides.

June 1910 Roald Amundsen—who had planned to explore the North Pole but changed his mind after Peary got there first—sails secretly from Norway aboard Arctic pioneer Fridtjof Nansen’s famous polar ice-ship the Fram. Scott, provisioning in Melbourne, Australia, on his way to the Antarctic, receives a telegram sent from the island of Madeira: AM GOING SOUTH. AMUNDSEN. The race is on for the South Pole.

Jan. 1911 Scott's Terra Nova Main Party, 24 men chosen from 8000 volunteers, lands at McMurdo Sound.

June 1911 Cherry, Wilson, and Bowers depart on the 5-week "Winter Journey" to collect Emperor penguin eggs for embryology research.

Dec. 1911 Amundsen and four companions plant a Norwegian flag at the South Pole.

Jan. 1912 Scott and four companions reach the Pole, only to find that Amundsen has been there first.

April 1912 Scott, Wilson, and Bowers die of starvation in their tent, 11 miles from the food cache at One Ton Depot. The other two members of the Polar Party, Seaman Edgar Evans and Captain Lawrence "Titus" Oates, have died already: Evans of injuries sustained in a fall, and Oates—whose frostbite had turned gangrenous—of exposure, having willingly walked away from the tent in a blizzard, in order to improve his companions' chances of survival. His parting words—"I am going outside; I may be some time"—become legendary in the literature of gentlemanly adventure.

Nov. 1912 The bodies of the Polar Party are found by the Search Party. Their diaries, scientific notes and samples, and exposed film are recovered. Cherry inscribes a passage from Tennyson’s Ulysses on the cross marking their graves.

1913 Survivors of the Terra Nova Expedition return to England. Cherry delivers three Emperor penguin eggs to the Natural History Museum.

1914 Cherry assumes command of a Navy armored car brigade in WWI.

1915 Lieut. Comdr. Cherry-Garrard is invalided out of the Navy and begins to write his book.

1922 The Worst Journey in the World is published by Constable, Ltd.

June, 1928 Roald Amundsen disappears in the Arctic. ­

May, 1959 Cherry dies peacefully at home in England.

June 2001 The Worst Journey in the World has now been printed in many editions. An internet search under "the worst journey in the world" yields 34,800 putative entries.

    *Dates and facts courtesy of:
    www.discoveryschool.com/homeworkhelp/worldbook/atozgeography
    www2.gorp.com/advenlib/books/worst.html
    www.amazon.com
    The National Geographic Atlas of the World (Revised 6th Edition, 1992)
    Apsley Cherry-Garrard, The Worst Journey in the World, (New York: Carroll & Graf, Inc., 1989)

Cabinet is a non-profit organization supported by the Lambent Foundation, the Orphiflamme Foundation, the National Endowment for the Arts, the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs, the New York State Council on the Arts, the Katchadourian Family Foundation, and many generous individuals. All our events are free, the entire content of our many sold-out issues are on our site for free, and we offer our magazine and books at prices that are considerably below cost. Please consider supporting our work by making a tax-deductible donation by visiting here.